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3D City Models


For several years 3D city models assume a central role in urban and regional planning, surveying, navigation and telecommunications and also allow in the environmental field precise analyses and simulations of pollutant, flood and noise propagation. The application areas are therefore quite varied and lead at the present time to an increased demand. The challenge in the construction of 3D city models is in particular the large number of different and complex building forms. Thus, the issue is still a very active area of research in various scientific disciplines.

In the research field 3D City Models the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation Science (IGG) develops data structures and procedures, which are used for the automatic reconstruction of building plans and 3D buildings. For the modeling of large areas mostly high resolution aerial laser scanning data are taken as the primary data base in order to generate 3D models automatically by using different data- and model-driven methods. Various generalization and restriction rules are applied to create shapely 3D city models so that these results can be used in diverse applications.

Keywords: Reconstruction, Building Plan, Building, Modeling, Laser Scanning Data, Data-driven, Model-driven, Generalization, Restriction, Three-dimensional

Contact:Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Kada,
Dr.-Ing. Andreas Wichmann

Relevant Publications

Matching Aerial Images to 3D Building Models Using Context-Based Geometric Hashing
Citation key Jung.2016
Author Jung, Jaewook and Sohn, Gunho and Bang, Kiin and Wichmann, Andreas and Armenakis, Costas and Kada, Martin
Pages 932
Year 2016
ISSN 1424-8220
Journal Sensors
Volume 16
Number 6
Abstract A city is a dynamic entity, which environment is continuously changing over time. Accordingly, its virtual city models also need to be regularly updated to support accurate model-based decisions for various applications, including urban planning, emergency response and autonomous navigation. A concept of continuous city modeling is to progressively reconstruct city models by accommodating their changes recognized in spatio-temporal domain, while preserving unchanged structures. A first critical step for continuous city modeling is to coherently register remotely sensed data taken at different epochs with existing building models. This paper presents a new model-to-image registration method using a context-based geometric hashing (CGH) method to align a single image with existing 3D building models. This model-to-image registration process consists of three steps: (1) feature extraction; (2) similarity measure; and matching, and (3) estimating exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) of a single image. For feature extraction, we propose two types of matching cues: edged corner features representing the saliency of building corner points with associated edges, and contextual relations among the edged corner features within an individual roof. A set of matched corners are found with given proximity measure through geometric hashing, and optimal matches are then finally determined by maximizing the matching cost encoding contextual similarity between matching candidates. Final matched corners are used for adjusting EOPs of the single airborne image by the least square method based on collinearity equations. The result shows that acceptable accuracy of EOPs of a single image can be achievable using the proposed registration approach as an alternative to a labor-intensive manual registration process.
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Martin Kada
+49 30 314 23274
2nd Floor,Kaiserin-Augusta-Allee 104-102
Room KAI 2302


Andreas Wichmann
+49 30 314 29498
5th Floor, Main Building
Room H 5128